The world is facing unprecedented challenges within food systems. Human populations are increasing beyond 9 billion souls to people with a changing climate, limits to water, limits to land, challenges to on-farm profitability, and demands from the public for environmental health. Alfalfa is a perennial legume with tremendous potential contributions to soil health, environmental health, and human nutrition. There are challenges and opportunities with alfalfa and alfalfa-based production systems for addressing some of the key challenges to the future of agriculture and the environment. The value of alfalfa as an N2-fixing legume with significant soil and wildlife habitat advantages is often not well understood, nor widely appreciated. New horizons are offered to research such as microbiome, chemical ecology, genome editing, and cropping systems offer new research frontiers and possible innovations. With the growing resources in digitalization, precision agriculture has high potential for producing alfalfa and linking with animal food production as well as non-animal foods. At this conference, we ask attendees to examine a wide range of current research on this crop and to envision the future role for this crop to sustain agriculture for future generations.